In a competitive industry, free entry translates into prices corresponding to marginal costs (P-MC). In the case of the digital example, PC 7. If this competitive price is replaced by the reverse demand equation, 7 – 40 – Q or Qc – 33. Earnings are calculated by resolution (P – MC) Q or c – (7 – 7) Q – 0. The competitive solution is indicated in the equation (5.2). Monopolistic competition – a market structure characterized by a differentiated product and freedom of entry and exit. Perfect competition lies at the end of the market structure, with many companies. The word “many” has a special meaning in this context. In a perfectly competitive industry, each company is so small compared to the market that it cannot influence the price of goods. Every perfectly competitive company is a price taker. Therefore, many companies mean that each company is so small that it is a price taker.
After the second period, Firm Two has a strong incentive to lower the price below P1. This process of under-quying the other company`s prices will continue and a “price war” will put pressure on prices at marginal costs. In balance, the two companies lower their prices until the price is equal to the marginal cost: P1 – P2 – MC1 – MC2. The price cannot be lower or companies would withdraw from the business due to negative economic benefits. To repeat the Bertrand model, each company chooses a price that indicates the price of the other company. Bertrand`s results are shown in equation 5.4. Mary and Raj are the only two breeders who supply organic corn to a local grocery store. They know that if they cooperated and produced less maize, they could raise the price of maize. If they work independently, they earn $100 each. If they decide to work together and reduce their performance, they can earn $150 each.
If one person lowers production and the other does not, the person who reduces production earns $0 and the other will conquer the whole market and earn $200. (Illustration) represents the choice Mary and Raj can choose. What is the best choice for Raj if he is sure that Maria will cooperate? If Mary thinks Raj`s going to cheat, what would Maria do and why? What`s the prisoner`s dilemma? What is the preferred choice if they can guarantee cooperation? A – Self-employment; B – Cooperation and reduction of expenditure. (Each result entry lists Raj`s merit first and Mary`s merit in second place.) In the folding curve model, the MR is discontinuous due to the asymmetrical nature of the needs curve. For linear needs curves, the MR has the same interception y and twice the slope … the serskint in two different sections for the MR curve, if the demand has a curvature. The graph shows how price rigidity occurs: any change in marginal costs results in the same price and quantity in the curve model. As long as the MC curve remains between the two sections of the MR curve, the optimal price and optimal quantity remain the same. While it is illegal in many parts of the world for companies to set prices and drive a market, the temptation to make higher profits makes it extremely tempting to oppose the law. An agreement is a group of companies that have an explicit agreement to reduce production to increase the price. (2) The Stackelberg model may be best suited to an industry dominated by relatively large companies.
Monopoly is the other extreme of the market structure with a single company. Monopolies have the power of monopoly or the ability to change the price of the property.